The Argument from Perfection Every trait we see, in every object, is compared to some standard: No God but the God of Abraham claims to be the very ground of being, the foundation of all reality. Form is the actuality of matter—not just the shape, but the factor or formation of the potential or the capacity of matter.
Second, we observe that everything has an efficient cause and that nothing is or can be the cause of itself. Now, as Aristotle teaches, things that are greatest in truth are also greatest in being.
Nothing can be at once in both actuality and potentiality in the same respect i. But yet in his first argument, he argues that God, an infinite being, must have created existence. Things have degrees of perfection—larger or smaller, heavier or lighter, warmer or colder.
For example, while he would allow that in all creatures there is found the trace of the Trinity yet a trace shows that someone has passed by but not who it is.
This order inherent in even inanimate things necessitates an intelligence to direct it. The one flaw that can be recognize in this argument is the idea of how is it possible to be against the idea of existence coming to existence due to random events that happen in the cosmos billions of years ago, but yet believe in the idea that a God has existed before the universe was created.
The sequence of motion cannot extend ad infinitum. From this factor alone, we have not, of course, explained the object.
This argument does make some kind of sense in the idea that in order to have a finite existence that some kind of infinite existence must exist in order for such a cause to happen. Just as everything that exists in the world is generated by something before it, so too must motion be passed from one object to another.
Things are put into motion by something else. Why is there eternal generation and corruption? But then there would be nothing in existence now, because no being can come into existence except through a being that already exists.
The formal factor is displayed by the picture in its two-dimensional aspect. But when any of these topics are discuss even more and a critical analysis is applied to any of the arguments.
But things clearly do exist now. Therefore there must also be something which is to all beings the cause of their being, goodness, and every other perfection; and this we call God.
There must be one thing that is non-contingent—i. With one objection dealing with if God has infinite goodness, then evil should not exist. There must be a necessary essence that caused all contingent things to be. God is this being that is all knowledgeable and guides the unknowledgeable beings, such as the world, to a goal or purpose.
It invites logical fallacy to use the statements as positive definitions rather than negative exclusions.
In Article II, he says that the approach of demonstration a postiori can be used to go trace back to assert the a priori existence of God. Such things could not always exist, though, because something that could possibly not exist at some time actually does not exist at some time.
The Argument from Gradation. Admittedly, those last two are a bit difficult for modern persons, but he might have asked all the same. The fact that anything exists at all, even now, means there must be one thing that cannot cease to exist, one thing that must necessarily exist.
Therefore it is impossible for these always to exist. Each begins with a general truth about natural phenomena and proceeds to the existence of an ultimate creative source of the universe.
If that by which it is changing is itself changed, then it too is being changed by something else. All things exhibit greater or lesser degrees of perfection.The famous Third Article addresses the question of whether God exists, and in this Article, Aquinas offers his Five Ways as proofs for the existence of God.
First, we observe that some things in. Briefly, the Five Ways of proving God are these: The Way of Motion: Things move and change. Things are put into motion by something else.
There cannot be an infinite regress, therefore there must have been an initial unmoved mover. This we call God. The Way of Causation: All things have an immediate or efficient cause.
The efficient causes cannot go back infinitely, so there must be a first, uncaused cause. A summary of Summa Theologica: Proofs for the Existence of God in 's Thomas Aquinas (c. –). Learn exactly what happened in this chapter, scene, or section of Thomas Aquinas (c.
–) and what it means. Perfect for acing essays, tests, and.
Explanations/Analysis of the Five Ways: (arranged in ascending order of detail and sophistication) Cosmological Arguments (including Aquinas') -- by Stephen A. Richards Problems of the First Cause by Fr. William Most, from the electronic library of EWTN. St. Thomas Aquinas: The Existence of God can be proved in five ways.
Argument Analysis of the Five Ways © Theodore Gracyk: The First Way: Argument from Motion. Our senses prove that some things are in motion. Things move when potential motion becomes actual motion. The Quinque viæ are five logical arguments regarding the existence of God summarized by the 13th-century Catholic philosopher and theologian St.
Thomas Aquinas in his book Summa Theologica.
They are: the argument from "motion"; the argument from causation; the argument from contingency; the argument from degree; the argument from final cause or ends. Aquinas expands the first of these – .Download